Soyuz, the Russian spacecraft was first invented in the Soviet Union. Back in the 1960s, Soviet Union started launching missions on it. Its first unmanned mission was sent on November 28, 1966. After the Soviet Union, Russia has been sending cosmonauts on space missions, and hence Soyuz became renowned for its space mission into the ISS (International Space Station). Soyuz never restricted itself in ISS alone, and it sent missions in space stations like Salyut series, Almaz, and Mir.
Soyuz also had a history of deadly launches. Soyuz 1 was the first mission with its single crew person, Vladimir Komarov. Unfortunately, the first crewed launch proved fatal due to the parachute failure. Later, in 1971, it killed three crewmembers as the cabin lost pressure. To carry astronauts into space, the only option available is Soyuz. NASA has no functional spacecraft since its space shuttle stopped working. Since the mid-1960s, Russian rocket boosters have been launching Soyuz.
The design of the spacecraft carries an orbital module, a service module, and a re-entry module to reach back Earth. The service module has the engines. There are different instruments present to carry the mission. Today, Soyuz carries astronauts for hours, days or for the time of six months. Soyuz is a spacecraft designed for one-time use only. For making breathing possible, a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen is taken into use.
Before we learn more about Soyuz and its future, it’s vital to know a little more of its history. Form 1967 till 1971, Soyuz was surrounded by different versions of itself. From Soyuz 1 to Soyuz 11, they had automated docking system for navigation and bent solar panels. Soyuz 7k-L1, designed by Soviet was tested with uncrewed launches to collect data from around the celestial bodies. Example of other variants involves Soyuz-T, Soyuz-TM, Soyuz-TMA, etc. The latest version SoyuzMS works with useful docking and computer system, it is fuel friendly and works on cost-effective solar panels.
The demand for Soyuz could fall by 2019-2020. The reason is recommencement of American crewed flights. This can be a huge loss for Russian Space Agency as today Soyuz earn them millions of dollars, accommodating American astronauts during trips. Though Russians will continue to take flights on Soyuz, the vast income that has been landing from America would shrink. There are discussions among the international partners regarding Deep Space Gateway. It is a new Lunar Space Station which has a potential of sending astronauts and cosmonauts for missions on different locations in the solar system.